IP Networking Classes
Every host on a TCP/IP network needs to have a unique address, similar to you
needing a unique address for your house. With this unique address, it is possible
to send data from host to host.
Every packet contains addressing information in
the header, and the IP address in the header is used to route packets.
people on your street had the same address, the post office would have a difficult
time sorting mail. For a similar reason, IP addresses are unique on each network.
What is IP addressing?
IP addressing is simply configuring each TCP/IP host with a valid IP address.
For access to the Internet, a host must have an IP address that identifies not only
the host address (like a house number) but also identifies the network address
(like a street number).
An administrator needs to be aware of proper addressing
techniques so that the hosts on the network will function correctly.
TCP/IP addresses are based on 32-bit addresses.
IP Address classes
IP addresses are divided into five IP classes:
IP address class A
IP address class B
IP address class C
IP address class D
IP address class E
All IP addresses are placed in a particular class based on the decimal values
of their first octets. In the first octet, an IP address can start with a decimal value
between 1 and 255.
IP class A addresses have first octets with a decimal number from 1 to 127. Example:
IP class B addresses have first octets with a decimal number from 128 to 191.Example:
IP class C addresses have first octets with a decimal number from 192 to 223.Example:
IP class D addresses have decimal values from 224 to 239 in the first octet, and the 4 leftmost bits are 1110.Example:
The last IP address class of addresses is IP class E. IP class E addresses range from 240 to 255
in the first octet, and the 4 leftmost bits are 1111. Example:
The system of IP class addresses has been set up to help ensure assignment of
unique IP addresses.
DHCP discover, DHCP offer, DHCP request, and DHCP acknowledgment are
are four steps in getting an IP address from a DHCP server.
Computer IP Address Configuration
To find out local what is My IP address and possible TCP/IP networking problem follow next steps:
- If you use win9x/ME go to
start-run and type winipcfg, and then press ENTER
- For win2k/xp or wista go to start-run (Windows Wista user go to Windows button), type cmd and then ENTER. At the DOS prompt type ipconfig
and you'll see DNS suffix, IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.
For more info type ipconfig /all
- For Macintosh select the TCP/IP control panel from the Apple menu's "Control Panels" sub-menu.
The TCP/IP control panel window will open and display your ip address.